Fusing the layers
Fusing the layers
To produce laminated Damascus steel the smith prepares a billet by stacking and fixing alternating pieces of hard and soft steel. While the billet is brought to welding heat in the fire, it is sprinkled with quartz sand to block-out oxygen and protecting the iron from burning. Applying quick light hand-hammer blows to the billet, solid-phase bonding occurs. The billet is drawn to double its length, cut into two equal pieces, folded, restacked and forge welded again, doubling the number of layers.

Depending on how often this process is repeated, a total of 300 to 600 layers of steel is achieved. This laminated Damascus steel is the material to craft the delicately patterned blades.